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   Civil Rights Movement Leaders  more information...
 
0812402
Ella Baker
0812402
0812528
Ella Baker
0812528
0812209
Carmichael, Hamer, Norton, Baker
0812209
0820001
Ella Baker Addresses Convention
0820001
0811016
Bob Moses
0811016
0811012
Bob Moses
0811012
0811010
Bob Moses, Ivanhoe Donaldson
0811010
0813421
Bob Moses
0813421
0812915
Bob Moses
0812915
0810430
Bob Moses
0810430
0930149
Bob Moses addressing a mass meeting held in Jackson MS church.
0930149
0930211
Bob Moses, Mindy Samstein
0930211
1080209
Jim Forman
1080209
1673427
Baldwin, Baez, Forman
1673427
1673428
Baldwin, Baez, Forman
1673428
1080222
Julian Bond
1080222
1673802
John Lewis
1673802
1671806
John Lewis
1671806
2000056
John Lewis
2000056
1674630
John Lewis, Flags
1674630
2002415
Stokely Carmichael
2002415
2002416
Stokely Carmichael
2002416
2002428
Stokely Carmichael
2002428
2000048
Stokely Carmichael
2000048
2001035
Stokely Carmichael
2001035
2000045
Stokely Carmichael
2000045
0993711
Arrest of Stokely Carmichael
0993711
0993710
Arrest of Stokely Carmichael
0993710
0810631
Cobb, Forman, Carmichael
0810631
0980217
Attempted Church Integration: Tougaloo College Students Arrested
0980217
2570824
Curtis Hayes
2570824
2570334
Curtis Hayes
2570334
1080319
Lawrence Guyot
1080319
1070828
Sam Block Plans Action
1070828
1080203
Mindy Samstein
1080203
0991817
Casey Hayden
0991817
0980105
Attempted Church Integration: Tougaloo College Students Arrested
0980105
0980511
Attempted Church Integration: Tougaloo College Students Arrested
0980511
0980121
Attempted Church Integration: Tougaloo College Students Arrested
0980121
1302026
Ed King, Joan Trumpauer
1302026
1263328
Ralph Abernathy
1263328
1676318
Abernathy, King, Bunche
1676318
1262930
Fred Shuttlesworth
1262930
1260217
Fred Shuttlesworth
1260217
1674605
Chandler, Young, Bevel
1674605
1674534
Bevel, Lewis in Rain
1674534
1676407
Belafante, Young, Lewis
1676407
1673820
A. Philip Randolph
1673820
2150233
James Farmer
2150233
2150237
James Farmer
2150237
1080333
Dave Dennis
1080333
2490422
James Chaney Funeral
2490422
2000065
McKissick, King, Carmichael
2000065
2000054
Floyd McKissick
2000054
2000424
Carmichael, McKissick, King
2000424
1080230
Richard Haley
1080230
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The major Civil Rights organizations evolved through very different histories and leadership philosophies. The NAACP, founded in 1907 to achieve equality for blacks by peaceful means largely through the courts, developed a broad membership base in the South as well as in the North. Thurgood Marshall and other distinguished NAACP lawyers were able to achieve school desegregation in law, although not often in fact. But in Mississippi, NAACP field secretary Medgar Evers, along with Aaron Henry and Amsie Moore confronted segregation directly, and Evers paid with his life in the summer of 1963. SCLC, which grew out of the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955, was a "top down" organization based on a leadership core of black Baptist ministers -- Martin Luther King and Ralph Abernathy in Atlanta, Fred Shuttlesworth in Birmingham and others -- energizing their congregations to take direct action against segregation and discrimination. Nonviolence for SCLC was a religious teaching as well as a direct action tactic. CORE was a secular organization, based in northern cities. It grew out of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, an American peace organization, and advocated direct action based on Ghandian principles of nonviolence to challenge segregation. CORE is best known for a series of Freedom Rides it carried out beginning in the summer of 1961 to test desegregation of interstate busses and terminal facilities. In the South, it was most active in Louisiana and Mississippi. SNCC was founded in 1960, initially to coordinate the large number of lunch counter sit-ins being conducted by black college students throughout the South. A "bottom up" organization, SNCC distrusted central leadership and focused on helping local people to organize for their own liberation. It was most active in Alabama and especially Mississippi, where it brought a thousand students from Ivy League colleges in the summer of 1964 to teach in Freedom Schools and work at voter registration. Three from this project were murdered by Klansmen near Philadelphia MS early in that summer. After 1964, SNCC began to reorganize around the principle of Black Power, but internal dissension began to gradually diminish its influence.
 

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